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2015-05-13

How to Detect Hemolytic Disorder in Urine Analysis

By MaryAnn

Urine analysis or urinalysis is a very basic and simple examination, but of great importance in the preliminary diagnosis and detection of many diseases.

Under normal condition, kidneys— which act as a primary excretory organ—dispose unnecessary substances to provide balance and homeostasis in the body. At the same time, the kidneys also filter and reabsorb substances that are still needed by the body.





Determination of decreased or increased amount of substances excreted by the kidneys provides a significant screening test for the detection of many diseases.

Correlation of Hemolytic Disorder with Substances Found in the Urine

Hemolytic diseases occur when there is an increased destruction of red blood cells inside the body. Large amount of free hemoglobin is broken down into protoporphyrin and further converted to bilirubin.

The actions of bacteria in the intestines turn the bilirubin into urobilinogen which circulates back into the liver and passes through the kidneys where 0.2 to 0.9 mg/dl of urobilinogen is normally found in the urine.

If there is an excessive amount of urobilinogen that results from the degradation of hemoglobin, the greater the amount will pass through the kidneys and thus excreted in order to reduce the high amount of substances and to maintain the body's homeostasis.

Screening Test for Hemolytic Disorder Using Urine Reagent Strip 

Freshly-voided, midstream-clean-catch urine is necessary for urine analysis using chemical tests to avoid false positive or false negative results.

It is also paramount to process urine as soon as possible after specimen submission to the laboratory.

The reagent urine strip is used in the detection of the upsurge amount of urobilinogen in the urine.

Urine strip is impregnated with chemicals that when come in contact with urobilinogen produces a corresponding chemical reaction that can be measured through instrumentation or by visual comparison of the produced color change with the color chart already prepared by the manufacturer.

Ranges of color can be seen in the color chart matched up with the quantitative measurement. The result is released in mg/dl.

The consequence of hemolytic disorders will result in excessive destruction of red cells and will provide increased production of urobilinogen.

Things to Remember When Undergoing Urine Urobilinogen Test 

1. Void a midstream-clean-catch urine in a clean dark specimen container (midstream-clean-catch urine sample is necessary to inhibit contamination with squamous epithelial cells; dark container is a must because bilirubin and urobilinogen are easily degraded when exposed to light).

2. Present the fresh urine sample in the laboratory not longer than 1 hour after collection to hinder bacterial contamination.

3. Wait for the result after one hour after submission or wait for the releasing time according to each laboratory's protocol.

4. Correlate urine urobilinogen with the result of urine bilirubin. Hemolytic diseases will produce negative urine bilirubin, but excessive amounts of urine urobilinogen.

This is because bilirubin that are produced by excessive lysis of red cells will be broken down into urobilinogen that is excreted and occurs in the urine.

5. The result is important as a screening test, but is not used as a confirmatory test. Consult with a physician once there is detected abnormality in the result of the test.

2015-03-28

Teacher Tips Dealing with Late Homework


If you are a teacher, one of the problems that you could encounter is dealing with late homework. You could approach it using the carrot or the stick method.



The carrot method is about giving rewards or merits, while the stick method is about giving sanctions or demerits. Studies about these two methods however, has shown that the carrot method was more effective in dealing with late homework.

To assist you in collecting late assignments, here are some teacher tips you could adapt.

*Give additional points for early homework submission 

You can reward additional points to students who could submit earlier. You could assign a specific point per day, like two-point merits per day, or one-point merit per day. You could also include designated points for the submission in your total score for the homework.

Below is an example: 

Submission – 10%
Content – 60%
Originality – 10%
Presentation – 10%
Overall impression– 10%

If the student does not submit on time, then he has lost already 10% of his score. Before you implement this method however, you have to inform the class about the criteria first. You can modify the categories and the corresponding percentages to fit your subject.

*Talk to the student to know the reason why 

If the student is still unable to submit his homework on time, even with the merits given, then you may want to look for the root cause. There may be a more serious psychological reason, like lack of attention, which your student is experiencing.

A heart-to-heart talk could reveal the true reasons of his late homework submissions. There could be other vital reasons, like the student being a slow learner. In this case, you may want to tutor him until he could catch up. By knowing about the root cause, you can proceed in resolving the problem appropriately.

*Talk to the parents 

In a few situations that the student does not open up, you can arrange a meeting with his parents. They could help significantly in determining if the problem lies at home or not. Sometimes, the true cause stems from the students’ home environment.

If the student’s home is the source of the problem, then you could talk to the parents so they could cooperate in providing a conducive environment so he could accomplish his homework successfully. You could adapt these teaching tips, or implement other methods in collecting late homework.

Your method should depend on your students’ learning abilities, and on the type of subject you teach. It is best to determine the root cause of late homework submissions, so you would be able to solve the problem permanently.



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2015-03-19

How Education can Influence the way People Vote

The purpose of learning is to permanently change the behaviour of a person for the better. Hence, when a person is educated this would definitely change the way he votes. This is because what a person has assimilated from his education would manifest itself in his actions. The following are ways in which education could do that.  

*Education widens people’s perspective

When people learn about different cultures and practices, they tend to be more understanding and tolerant of other people’s practices. This would allow them to vote for people who do not belong to their own ethnic race or religion. The point of focus would then be on the candidates’ platforms or reform agendas.

Education provides more knowledge needed for a well-informed vote

People who get to read more about these candidates would have a more detailed knowledge about the candidates’ focus and proposed platforms. A person can also be educated through constant reading, and this would certainly allow him to select a person whom he thinks has more credible plans for the citizenry. Educational institutions also encouraged information dissemination to their students, who are of voting age, to help them out with their choices.  

*Education helps voters discern the true nature of the candidate

Although some people could naturally discern the character of a person without obtaining education, educated people are still equipped with the proper tools to discern a person’s character. Educated people can do this through psychology, behavioral and cognitive analysis.  

*Education enables voters to evaluate the economic platform of a candidate

If a person is educated, he would more or less understand the intricate process of how the economy works and similar topics. With this significant information, he can then evaluate the candidates’ economic policies if these are sound and reliable. This would influence the way he would vote.  

*Education eliminates misinformation of voters

Sometimes, uneducated voters just go to the poll and vote whoever is the most popular. If voters are educated though, they usually find a way to learn and read about the candidate before arriving at a decision. Education also creates a moral conscience for educated voters to know all about the candidates before they go to the polls.

These are all ways in which education could influence the way people vote. Being educated is always an advantage in this growing and dynamic era of computers and state-of-the-art technology. Education plays a major role in any aspect of man’s growth, development and progress and the process of voting is not an exception.


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2015-02-08

Drawbacks to Blogging, Blogging Diseases You Can Develop



Just like any other activity, blogging has its own drawbacks. It can be a rewarding activity in terms of financial and personal gain if you are able to blog effectively and reliably. To do this, you have to be knowledgeable about certain drawbacks that can result from blogging. It is only by being aware of them that you can avoid them.

Development of Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS)

Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) is a condition caused by prolonged exposure to computer or lap top screens. It is defined by the American Optometric Association as a complex eye/vision syndrome resulting from prolonged computer use. One of the major drawbacks of blogging concerns health issues. Spending several hours in front of your laptop or computer with your eyes glued to the electromagnetic screen is not healthy by any standard.




Although all other computer activities are involved, blogging is one of the activities that could make you spend long hours in front of a computer. CVS is characterized by headache, eye strain, blurred vision, teary and painful eyes. These are not permanent however, there are remedies for CVS. Some of them are looking at a green object every now, and then standing once in a while to relieve the symptoms.

Musculoskeletal Problems can develop

Musculoskeletal problems can occur as well. The neck, arms and hands are the most commonly affected areas. Your arms and back muscles ache because your working place is not ergonomically suited for you. You should know the proper posture and use a table and chair that has the correct height and that is proportional to your vital body statistics. You should know the proper posture so that you would not be prone to musculoskeletal problems. Sit with your back straight, your ears and shoulders aligned; and your feet touching the floor. Your feet should not be hanging or be too cramped.

Watch out for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is a condition characterized by muscle damage to the nerves in the hand and the fingers. Some studies revealed that CTS is not caused by prolonged use of the computer mouse, but there are also some instances when people working on computers, with predisposing factors like arthritis, developed CTS, than those who are not exposed. Blogging entails hours and hours in front of the computer, so you must know that you have to take a break often to avoid health problems. It is common sense to take breaks every once in a while. Health is one significant drawback of blogging that not many people tend to ignore. You should not ignore it, because health is wealth.

Offline social life is zilch

Blogging can become absorbing at times that bloggers sometimes have an active social life online but a non-existent social life offline. That is why when the time comes for them to attend social events; they become awkward and have no social skills. There are also some instances that they feel like an outcast because they have not developed the skill to interact in person with other people. This would lead to feelings of inadequacy and low self-esteem. If you have such symptoms, then reduce your blogging hours and slowly return to an offline social life by going to get-together parties.

Time consuming

Blogging entails updating your blog regularly, if you truly want to succeed. You have to spend time promoting your blog, which would take long hours of hard work. You find yourself tweaking your blog every now and then, writing a post, blog hopping, improving your theme, responding to comments in your blog, socializing and before you know it the day or night is over. You can solve this by following a prepared schedule and sticking to it.

Abuse of the freedom of blogging

Oftentimes we read someone abusing his right to blog by using his blog for illegal, defamatory or unpleasant activities. There is no control of what people can say in their blogs. Google has helped in the solution of this problem by allowing the online community to report blogs, which have abusive and illegitimate contents. You can write anything in your blog, but it is your social responsibility to be conscientious enough to watch out what you say in public. It is called Responsible Blogging.” Abusing your freedom to blog is considered a drawback because it can hurt other people and yourself as well. If you are not careful you may reveal also your own private information that you are not supposed to be disclosing in public. It could hurt you too, like in the case of an ex-wife unable to get disability money from her husband because of what she posted in her blog, she was allegedly belly dancing.

Your time and effort may not be compensated properly

The time and effort you spend attending to your blog may not be financially rewarding as you intended it to be. In this case, it is a drawback because instead of earning from your blog, you are spending for it. If you are blogging to make money online, then this is an essential drawback.  You may want to learn more about some blogging tips so that your time and effort would be compensated appropriately. It is another story though, if you just blog as a hobby, then it would indeed be beneficial to you.

These are some of the major drawbacks of blogging. Being aware of them would help you avoid them so that you can succeed in your blogging career.


 
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2014-07-19

Manual Operation of the Spectrophotometer: Performance Checklist

 Evaluating and assessing students' performance during laboratory procedures is difficult if there are no specific and structured checklists to monitor the performance.

The following are pointers on how to prepare a checklist for laboratory procedure evaluations.

1.Before preparing the checklist, be certain to establish your goals and objectives for that particular activity. Each activity should have its own evaluation tool based on the objectives.

i.e. At the end of the activity, the student should be able to:

1. name and identify the basic components of the spectrophotometer;
2. discuss the principle of spectrophotometry;
3. read properly the unknown solution in the spectrophotometer;
4. terminate the procedure with the proper sequence of events





2.After establishing the procedure's objectives, the different steps of the procedure should be identified clearly to determine which would be considered as the criteria.

i.e. identification of the basic components of the spectrophotometer excellent

3.Determine what scale to use in the evaluation. You can utilize the graded scale,

From 1- 5,

1 - done with more than 3 errors - poor
2 - done but with 3 errors - fair
3 done but with 2 errors - good
4 done but with 1 error - very good
5 done with no errors. - excellent

Or you could just use these two parameters.

Satisfactory - step has been performed well
Unsatisfactory - step has not been performed well

4.Each step of the procedure should be assigned one evaluation criteria.

i.e. identification of the light source
identification of the monochromator
identification of the cuvette

Notice that all of the 3 items above refer to only one objective the identification of the parts of the spectrophotometer.

5.The checklist should be used in rating all of the students to obtain objective results in the evaluation.

6.Leave a space for a comment portion in the checklist. This is where the instructor writes the corrections of the student's performance.

7.The criteria maybe modified for other procedures to fit in more complicated steps.

8.The student should be given a feedback by the instructor himself. How can the student improve if he does not know the error that he had committed in the procedure?

9.Be specific about the criteria involved in the procedure's steps. Sometimes the instructions are so vague, that the student has no idea what you would like him to perform and observe.

10.Checklists are good evaluation tools because they are objective. Instructors must remember however, that these are not perfect. The instructor has still the final decision. Modifications should be done regularly to come up with the best checklist for particular procedures.

Having objective tools -like checklists - in evaluating students will help a lot in reducing subjective biases.

 This has been published on voice.yahoo.com



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2014-04-12

Be the “Lady of the Night” on Your Graduation Party with These Awesome Undies that Would Make You Look Sexy and Flawless

Not everyone can possess a sexy, flawless body but everyone can acquire a sexy, smooth figure through these awesome Best Bra undies. Be the “Lady of the Night” during Your Graduation Party with these awesome undies that would make you look sexy and flawless. A beautiful dress could be ruined by an ‘ugly’ underwear, so don’t let this happen to you. Choose your underwear properly and your outfit would be dazzling. If you want to look your best during your prom, don’t worry, a Best Bra could make you fuller and voluptuous. It would also give you a smoother figure that would make you look dazzling in your prom outfit, no matter what you wear. The bra would enhance your breasts naturally that you would look your best. A Bra and Cami with cleavage cover could also look good if you prefer to use a camisole under your prom dress or gown. This would provide your figure a seamless perfect appearance and would likely turn you into the sexiest woman of the night. Of course, you will have to be confident because this would reflect on the way you carry yourself during the party. Remember to be natural and amiable and everyone would admire you. Carry yourself with poise and elegance because it would surely be certain that you would look stunning in your graduation party dress with your amazing underwear.
 

2013-10-03

Table of Specifications - CLINICAL CHEMISTRY 1

CLINICAL CHEMISTRY 1 AY: 2013-2014
TABLE OF SPECIFICATIONS
TOPIC
 (%)
MC
PS
CA
IDENTIF.
ESSAY
TOTAL ITEMS
Lab Math
10

15

1

16
Instrumentation
10
15




15
Specimen collection
10
11


4

15
Quality assurance
12
3
5
5
5

18
Carbohydrate
10
15




15
Lipids
10
10
5



15
Proteins
10
10



5
15
Blood Uric Acid
10
15




15
Creatinine
10
10

5


15
Blood Urea Nitrogen
8
11




11
TOTAL
TRANSCRIPTION
(20 pts.)
100%
100
25
10
10
5

150
170-GRAND TOTAL

LEGEND:

IDENTIFICATION

MC – MULTIPLE CHOICE
PS – PROBLEM SOLVING
CA - CASE ANALYSIS
E - ESSAY
TRANSCRIPTION

WHAT TO BRING:

1.       BLACK OR BLUE BALLPENS
2.       LINEAR GRAPHING PAPER
3.       LEAD 2 PENCILS
4.       CALCULATORS (BORROWING OF CALCULATORS IS NOT ALLOWED)
5.       PERMITS

PLEASE COME IN COMPLETE UNIFORM.

FYI

/VBG



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2013-09-03

Sample Table of Specifications (TOS) in Clinical Chemistry



CLINICAL CHEMISTRY 1 AY: 2013-2014
TABLE OF SPECIFICATIONS – MIDTERMS
TOPIC
PERCENTAGE (%)
MC
TOTAL ITEMS
Problem Solving
8
15
15
Quality Assurance
18
27
27
Specimen Collection
14
21
21
Instrumentation
20
32
32
Proteins
7
10
10
Carbohydrates
9
15
15
Lipids
15
22
22
Others
5
8
8




TOTAL
TRANSCRIPTION
(15 pts.)
100%
150
150
165-GRAND TOTAL

LEGEND:

MC – MULTIPLE CHOICE

WHAT TO BRING:

1.       BLUEBOOK # 1
2.       BLACK OR BLUE BALLPENS
3.       CALCULATORS (BORROWING OF CALCULATORS IS NOT ALLOWED)
4.       PERMITS



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