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How to Prepare for a Mathematics Examination

Mathematics is one of the most dreaded subjects by lots of students in school; preparing for it is, all the more, daunting. Taken into a proper perspective, though, math is a relatively easy and interesting subject.

If you are one of those students preparing for your mathematics test, here are pointers on how to go about it. Listen to your lectures The foremost preparation for your math exams is to listen and understand your teacher’s lectures.

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You do half the work if you take down notes, listen, and understand the lectures. Make your notes neat; re-write if necessary so that you would have an easier time reviewing later on. Underline key words and write down data clearly.

If you do not understand a concept, do not be shy to ask your teacher. You’re in the learning process, so it is expected that you have some questions.

Teachers appreciate students who ask sensible questions because this means they are listening and are interested in the subject.

Study every day 

Cramming is not a good option during exams. When you cram, you could forget everything or fall asleep during exams. There is only too much that a sleepy and tired brain could absorb in one night. Studying every day would eliminate the need to cram.

The night before the exam, you should sleep and wake up early, so that your mind is rested and alert. Make use of index cards for formulas that need to be memorized, but before memorizing, understand the concept first.

Do group study 

If you are one of those students who readily sleep when studying alone, you could do a group study. 
You should do this, though, at least a week before the exams, to avoid cramming. Each student in your group should prepare a problem that the group could discuss and solve.

Everyone should be given the chance to answer and participate.

Make use of practice sets 

Make use of prepared test sets and simulate the testing environment. What are the types of questions your teacher usually asks? You can inquire from previous students about these types of questions, then practice solving them. You can also go over previously given examples during your lectures.

The important thing is that you have practiced solving problems because this would help you during the exams.

Prepare all materials the day before the exams 

Remember to prepare all your materials early, so you could remedy them when they are not available. Confirm the room number too, so you would not be stressed out looking for your room. Some materials you may need are: pencils with erasers, calculators, ball pens, graphing papers, rulers, examination permits, and test booklets.

You should also prepare yourself physically through these steps: Sleep and wake up early. This would keep you mentally alert and focused. Attend to nature’s call to avoid feeling uncomfortable during the exams.

Eat properly and hydrate yourself

Do not overeat or starve. The brain needs sufficient glucose and water to perform well. Avoid alcohol and drugs because they would affect your cognitive process. Alcohol is a Central Nervous System depressant, and drugs could muddle your memory. Relax the night before the test so you could think clearly on the day of the exam. During the exam itself, you should read the questions twice before attempting to answer them.

Analyze the questions properly and double check if you have solved the problem correctly. Write legibly and avoid erasures; your teacher may mark your answer incorrect if she/he could not understand them.

All of these things count during a mathematics examination. The crucial factor to remember is that believing in yourself and doing your best, is winning half of the battle. So, prepare well, and give your math exams your best shot.

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How to use Blogging Tools to Bring Traffic to your Articles and Increase Traffic to Blog

Bloggers should realize the significance of blogging tools to generate traffic for their articles.

If you are a blogger, you would know that your articles could only be read if you can increase traffic to your blog.

If you are wondering how you could do this, here are tried and tested methods that you may want to adapt.

*Search Engine Optimization (SEO) Tools

Search Engine Optimization is a blogging tool which makes use of several methods to optimize articles of post.

One of them is to use significant keywords in an article to ensure that it gets a high ranking slot in the Search Engines Results Pages (SERP).

SEO increases your blog’s online visibility in the search engines. This method could generate traffic in thousands or millions of hits, if you discover the correct strategy.

The keyword density is considered in each article where posts shouldhave a keyword that surfers most often use to search for that specific topic.

The keyword density should be at least 1% to 2% but not greater, because Google fines articles or blogs with more than 2% repetition of words. It is tantamount to spamming the search engines.

Google could also fine your blog and decrease its Google Page Rank. SEO tools include several aspects of blogging that would seem complicated to the average blogger.

These are some of the tools used in SEO

1. Google analytics Tool

This tool is very powerful and significant. If you know how to use all the data obtained by the tool, you can generate tons of traffic to your blog.

Sign up your blog with Google Analytics and monitor your traffic, where your traffic comes from, what countries, what type of provider are they using, what are the most read topics in your blog, what are the most clicked ads and many more vital information.

Without Google Analytics, your blog can be likened to a ship without a captain. The tool provides everything you need to know about your blog’s data concerning traffic and advertisements.

2. Webmaster Tools

These are tools that could help you optimize your blog by providing you a means to submit your sitemap to Google search engine.

The sitemap is a blueprint of your blog; it will reveal the important contents of your blog. For MSN, you can also submit your blog’s URL so that MSN search engines can also index your posts, increasing traffic to your articles.

These tools can help you identify search engine problems encountered when your site is “crawled” by search engine spiders for new articles.

3. Backlink Checker

This tool would determine who links to you and whether it is a dofollow or nofollow link. It also shows the page of the site that has linked back to you.

Although the specific algorithm of Yahoo, Google and Bing are not revealed to online users, pro-bloggers have established that SEO is significant to attract traffic to your blog.

4. Rich Site Summary (RSS) Feeds Maximizer Tool

This tool will increase your RSS and your traffic too by sending rich content summary of your posts to various sites which contain the similar content as your article.

This would expand your online exposure and visibility thereby, increasing traffic to your articles.

*Social Web 2.0 Media

1. Facebook

Web 2.0 is any medium that is used online that allows user and site interaction. There are several Social websites online. Facebook is one very good example.

You can become a member of the site and allow the use of the Networked Blog application in your account.

This application allows you to automatically update your profile or application with your latest posts.

Links to your posts will then be displayed in your Homepage where your “friends” are allowed to click on the links so they could read your articles.

In this connection, it is imperative that you know how to create titillating titles that readers would find interesting enough to click your links.

You can also create a “Fan Page” at Facebook and allow people to interact with you about the different posts in your blog.

You could also allow users to like your Fan Page” as a way of inviting more readers. Posting links to your blog articles in your wall or your friends’ wall will direct traffic to your articles.

2. Twitter

Twitter is called “microblogging” because you can only write 140 words per tweet. It is one reliable way of promoting articles to your blog by tweeting the links your posts.

Just like in Facebook, however, you should also have a catchy title that would arouse online users to click on your links.  However, do not tweet only the links to your articles.

Be a supportive “tweeterpeep” or member by RTing or re-tweeting other member’s tweets too. In connection with twitter, you can use applications that can connect to Twitter, like HotSuite and Twitter Adder to help drive traffic to your blog.

3. Free Articles Submission

This web 2.0 tool will help bring traffic to your blog because you can write an article, and submit it to these sites.

A link to your articles from your “Author's Information, or right after the article itself will invite traffic. There are several of these online sites, like Ezine.

There are still plenty of online tools you can use to increase traffic to your blog.

You need patience, determination and the ability to welcome and use new tools to succeed in your blogging quest.

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Sample Table of Specifications (TOS) for Exams

A Table of Specifications (TOS) for exams is needed, so that there’s distribution of the questions based on their percentages in your syllabus or lesson plan. 

You will be assigning these percentages (weights) according to the importance of the topic as reflected in the units assigned to each topic.

A sample TOS is presented below:

Let’s say your exam topic is Physiology, and have these assigned percentages:

Integumentary system = 20%
Circulatory system = 30%
Respiratory system = 25%
Excretory system = 25%

For a total of 100%


If you decide to have a 150-item exam, you can solve the number of items for each topic by multiplying the 150 with the percentage converted to a digit number.

Examples are below:

For Integumentary = 150 X 0.20 (20%) = 30 items

For Circulatory = 150 X 0.30 (30%) = 45 items

For Respiratory = 150 X 0.25 (25%) = 37.5 items (since this is not a whole number, you can make this 37 items)

For excretory = 150 X 0.25 (25%) = 37.5 items (since this is not a whole number you can convert this to 38 items)

Now, you decide what type of questions you’ll be asking based on the skill needed for your topics and the objective you have set for your subject. You distribute now the number of items per type of test. 

You’ll have to use your power of deduction in this distribution. If you think your students need to discuss the topic, then use an essay type of question. If the topic needs simple recall, then use identification.

Here’s a basic example.

Simple Table of Specifications for an Exam in Physiology

10 items
Multiple choice
120 items

20 items
Total Items
150 items

For more detailed instructions CLICK HERE.

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How to Detect Hemolytic Disorder in Urine Analysis

By MaryAnn

Urine analysis or urinalysis is a very basic and simple examination, but of great importance in the preliminary diagnosis and detection of many diseases.

Under normal condition, kidneys— which act as a primary excretory organ—dispose unnecessary substances to provide balance and homeostasis in the body. At the same time, the kidneys also filter and reabsorb substances that are still needed by the body.

Determination of decreased or increased amount of substances excreted by the kidneys provides a significant screening test for the detection of many diseases.

Correlation of Hemolytic Disorder with Substances Found in the Urine

Hemolytic diseases occur when there is an increased destruction of red blood cells inside the body. Large amount of free hemoglobin is broken down into protoporphyrin and further converted to bilirubin.

The actions of bacteria in the intestines turn the bilirubin into urobilinogen which circulates back into the liver and passes through the kidneys where 0.2 to 0.9 mg/dl of urobilinogen is normally found in the urine.

If there is an excessive amount of urobilinogen that results from the degradation of hemoglobin, the greater the amount will pass through the kidneys and thus excreted in order to reduce the high amount of substances and to maintain the body's homeostasis.

Screening Test for Hemolytic Disorder Using Urine Reagent Strip 

Freshly-voided, midstream-clean-catch urine is necessary for urine analysis using chemical tests to avoid false positive or false negative results.

It is also paramount to process urine as soon as possible after specimen submission to the laboratory.

The reagent urine strip is used in the detection of the upsurge amount of urobilinogen in the urine.

Urine strip is impregnated with chemicals that when come in contact with urobilinogen produces a corresponding chemical reaction that can be measured through instrumentation or by visual comparison of the produced color change with the color chart already prepared by the manufacturer.

Ranges of color can be seen in the color chart matched up with the quantitative measurement. The result is released in mg/dl.

The consequence of hemolytic disorders will result in excessive destruction of red cells and will provide increased production of urobilinogen.

Things to Remember When Undergoing Urine Urobilinogen Test 

1. Void a midstream-clean-catch urine in a clean dark specimen container (midstream-clean-catch urine sample is necessary to inhibit contamination with squamous epithelial cells; dark container is a must because bilirubin and urobilinogen are easily degraded when exposed to light).

2. Present the fresh urine sample in the laboratory not longer than 1 hour after collection to hinder bacterial contamination.

3. Wait for the result after one hour after submission or wait for the releasing time according to each laboratory's protocol.

4. Correlate urine urobilinogen with the result of urine bilirubin. Hemolytic diseases will produce negative urine bilirubin, but excessive amounts of urine urobilinogen.

This is because bilirubin that are produced by excessive lysis of red cells will be broken down into urobilinogen that is excreted and occurs in the urine.

5. The result is important as a screening test, but is not used as a confirmatory test. Consult with a physician once there is detected abnormality in the result of the test.


Teacher Tips Dealing with Late Homework

If you are a teacher, one of the problems that you could encounter is dealing with late homework. You could approach it using the carrot or the stick method.

The carrot method is about giving rewards or merits, while the stick method is about giving sanctions or demerits. Studies about these two methods however, has shown that the carrot method was more effective in dealing with late homework.

To assist you in collecting late assignments, here are some teacher tips you could adapt.

*Give additional points for early homework submission 

You can reward additional points to students who could submit earlier. You could assign a specific point per day, like two-point merits per day, or one-point merit per day. You could also include designated points for the submission in your total score for the homework.

Below is an example: 

Submission – 10%
Content – 60%
Originality – 10%
Presentation – 10%
Overall impression– 10%

If the student does not submit on time, then he has lost already 10% of his score. Before you implement this method however, you have to inform the class about the criteria first. You can modify the categories and the corresponding percentages to fit your subject.

*Talk to the student to know the reason why 

If the student is still unable to submit his homework on time, even with the merits given, then you may want to look for the root cause. There may be a more serious psychological reason, like lack of attention, which your student is experiencing.

A heart-to-heart talk could reveal the true reasons of his late homework submissions. There could be other vital reasons, like the student being a slow learner. In this case, you may want to tutor him until he could catch up. By knowing about the root cause, you can proceed in resolving the problem appropriately.

*Talk to the parents 

In a few situations that the student does not open up, you can arrange a meeting with his parents. They could help significantly in determining if the problem lies at home or not. Sometimes, the true cause stems from the students’ home environment.

If the student’s home is the source of the problem, then you could talk to the parents so they could cooperate in providing a conducive environment so he could accomplish his homework successfully. You could adapt these teaching tips, or implement other methods in collecting late homework.

Your method should depend on your students’ learning abilities, and on the type of subject you teach. It is best to determine the root cause of late homework submissions, so you would be able to solve the problem permanently.

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How Education can Influence the way People Vote

The purpose of learning is to permanently change the behaviour of a person for the better. Hence, when a person is educated this would definitely change the way he votes. This is because what a person has assimilated from his education would manifest itself in his actions. The following are ways in which education could do that.  

*Education widens people’s perspective

When people learn about different cultures and practices, they tend to be more understanding and tolerant of other people’s practices. This would allow them to vote for people who do not belong to their own ethnic race or religion. The point of focus would then be on the candidates’ platforms or reform agendas.

Education provides more knowledge needed for a well-informed vote

People who get to read more about these candidates would have a more detailed knowledge about the candidates’ focus and proposed platforms. A person can also be educated through constant reading, and this would certainly allow him to select a person whom he thinks has more credible plans for the citizenry. Educational institutions also encouraged information dissemination to their students, who are of voting age, to help them out with their choices.  

*Education helps voters discern the true nature of the candidate

Although some people could naturally discern the character of a person without obtaining education, educated people are still equipped with the proper tools to discern a person’s character. Educated people can do this through psychology, behavioral and cognitive analysis.  

*Education enables voters to evaluate the economic platform of a candidate

If a person is educated, he would more or less understand the intricate process of how the economy works and similar topics. With this significant information, he can then evaluate the candidates’ economic policies if these are sound and reliable. This would influence the way he would vote.  

*Education eliminates misinformation of voters

Sometimes, uneducated voters just go to the poll and vote whoever is the most popular. If voters are educated though, they usually find a way to learn and read about the candidate before arriving at a decision. Education also creates a moral conscience for educated voters to know all about the candidates before they go to the polls.

These are all ways in which education could influence the way people vote. Being educated is always an advantage in this growing and dynamic era of computers and state-of-the-art technology. Education plays a major role in any aspect of man’s growth, development and progress and the process of voting is not an exception.

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Drawbacks to Blogging, Blogging Diseases You Can Develop

Just like any other activity, blogging has its own drawbacks. It can be a rewarding activity in terms of financial and personal gain if you are able to blog effectively and reliably. To do this, you have to be knowledgeable about certain drawbacks that can result from blogging. It is only by being aware of them that you can avoid them.

Development of Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS)

Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS) is a condition caused by prolonged exposure to computer or lap top screens. It is defined by the American Optometric Association as a complex eye/vision syndrome resulting from prolonged computer use. One of the major drawbacks of blogging concerns health issues. Spending several hours in front of your laptop or computer with your eyes glued to the electromagnetic screen is not healthy by any standard.

Although all other computer activities are involved, blogging is one of the activities that could make you spend long hours in front of a computer. CVS is characterized by headache, eye strain, blurred vision, teary and painful eyes. These are not permanent however, there are remedies for CVS. Some of them are looking at a green object every now, and then standing once in a while to relieve the symptoms.

Musculoskeletal Problems can develop

Musculoskeletal problems can occur as well. The neck, arms and hands are the most commonly affected areas. Your arms and back muscles ache because your working place is not ergonomically suited for you. You should know the proper posture and use a table and chair that has the correct height and that is proportional to your vital body statistics. You should know the proper posture so that you would not be prone to musculoskeletal problems. Sit with your back straight, your ears and shoulders aligned; and your feet touching the floor. Your feet should not be hanging or be too cramped.

Watch out for Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome is a condition characterized by muscle damage to the nerves in the hand and the fingers. Some studies revealed that CTS is not caused by prolonged use of the computer mouse, but there are also some instances when people working on computers, with predisposing factors like arthritis, developed CTS, than those who are not exposed. Blogging entails hours and hours in front of the computer, so you must know that you have to take a break often to avoid health problems. It is common sense to take breaks every once in a while. Health is one significant drawback of blogging that not many people tend to ignore. You should not ignore it, because health is wealth.

Offline social life is zilch

Blogging can become absorbing at times that bloggers sometimes have an active social life online but a non-existent social life offline. That is why when the time comes for them to attend social events; they become awkward and have no social skills. There are also some instances that they feel like an outcast because they have not developed the skill to interact in person with other people. This would lead to feelings of inadequacy and low self-esteem. If you have such symptoms, then reduce your blogging hours and slowly return to an offline social life by going to get-together parties.

Time consuming

Blogging entails updating your blog regularly, if you truly want to succeed. You have to spend time promoting your blog, which would take long hours of hard work. You find yourself tweaking your blog every now and then, writing a post, blog hopping, improving your theme, responding to comments in your blog, socializing and before you know it the day or night is over. You can solve this by following a prepared schedule and sticking to it.

Abuse of the freedom of blogging

Oftentimes we read someone abusing his right to blog by using his blog for illegal, defamatory or unpleasant activities. There is no control of what people can say in their blogs. Google has helped in the solution of this problem by allowing the online community to report blogs, which have abusive and illegitimate contents. You can write anything in your blog, but it is your social responsibility to be conscientious enough to watch out what you say in public. It is called Responsible Blogging.” Abusing your freedom to blog is considered a drawback because it can hurt other people and yourself as well. If you are not careful you may reveal also your own private information that you are not supposed to be disclosing in public. It could hurt you too, like in the case of an ex-wife unable to get disability money from her husband because of what she posted in her blog, she was allegedly belly dancing.

Your time and effort may not be compensated properly

The time and effort you spend attending to your blog may not be financially rewarding as you intended it to be. In this case, it is a drawback because instead of earning from your blog, you are spending for it. If you are blogging to make money online, then this is an essential drawback.  You may want to learn more about some blogging tips so that your time and effort would be compensated appropriately. It is another story though, if you just blog as a hobby, then it would indeed be beneficial to you.

These are some of the major drawbacks of blogging. Being aware of them would help you avoid them so that you can succeed in your blogging career.

The RSS feed of this post is for non-commercial use only. This is not for blogs or websites that have ads and the like. If you're reading this post in another site, then please leave a note in my blog at so I can take appropriate action. Thank you.