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The Simple View of the Scientific Method in Philosophy

The philosophy of science has been widely used by researchers in the quest for facts that exist on earth. It is one of the methods that is also commonly utilized in scientific endeavors. Philosophers, such as Aristotle and Francis Bacon, view it as an accurate observation of an event without any bias or preconceived notions. It should be based on logical deductions that could be demonstrated.  It could be further explained in these simple statements.

Scientific methods make use of experimentation

Francis Bacon, the Father of Experimental Science, believes that to determine facts, one should derive facts from experimentation. The results observed should be based on empirical methods. Before you can experiment, however, you have to know basic principles or “first principles.” These are already established facts based on induction or deduction.

Induction is the process where you arrive at a conclusion through the observation of specific outcomes followed by general outcomes, while deduction is from general to specific observations. The most preferred is the induction method because it is simpler and more organized.

Scientific methods usually use hypotheses to explain propositions Scientists discover facts by searching for explanations for certain phenomena. Johann Galle discovered the planet Neptune through deduction. He did this by proposing that since Uranus has an erratic behavior, and was not following Kepler’s law of planetary motion; there must be a distant body that exerts gravitational pull on Uranus, and he discovered Neptune.

Newton’s Law of Motion has elucidated Kepler’s law of gravitation and Galileo’s law of acceleration. Newton created a hypothesis and through deduction arrived at his more specific facts and one of them is that:

“Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it.”

Scientific methods employ organized and well documented steps

The processes are arranged chronologically and results and the empirical data or observations are well documented. There are valid explanations to the arrangement of the steps, which are discussed in detail. The hypotheses serve as a proposed explanation to an existing problem or fact. At every step, the details of the observations should be recorded properly.

In the nineteenth century, Pierre Duhem argued that philosophy as a science should not only be concerned with observations but should also deal with theoretical frameworks and ‘interlocking group of hypotheses.” Duhem countered Newton’s deductive method.

As the world evolves into the 21st century of computers and techno gadgets, the scientific method in Philosophy also takes in a new form. The important thing to remember is that the scientific method would generally require first principles, deductions or inductions, logical and organized frameworks, hypotheses, and the proper records of the observations of these various steps.

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An Introduction to Medicine as it is now

Nowadays, medicine has expanded to various disciplines; doctors now have their own specializations. During the old days, when a patient paid a visit to his doctor, he expected his doctor to be able to diagnose all his conditions. 

Presently, however, there are different doctors for each of the body’s vital organs. There are cardiologists for the heart, nephrologists for the kidneys, Physiatrists for physical disabilities, and a lot more kinds of doctors in specific fields.

Whether you are a student, who would like to pursue medicine, or a patient planning to visit his doctor, it is imperative that you should know what specific field of medicine you are interested in. 

The cardiologist would not entertain your complaints of muscle weakness, unless it is related to your heart. He would recommend you to a physiatrist, most likely. To know more of what type of field you should consider, here are some specialized doctors and a brief description of each Physiatrists or rehabilitation physicians

These are doctors who specialize in physical medicine and rehabilitation of patients who may have been partially or fully unable to move and perform their routine activities. Physical therapists who proceeded to medical school are excellent candidates for becoming physiatrists.  One vital requirement for becoming a physiatrist is that he should have completed his training in physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R).


These are internal medical doctors, who are experts in treating cardiac conditions, such as myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy and other heart diseases. They should have specialized training in cardiac management and are licensed as cardiologists or fellows in a licensing organization in their country. The cardiologist could recommend and supervise diagnostic tests such as ECG, stress tests or laboratory tests to confirm or help him diagnose a patient.


Nephrologists are also doctors in internal medicine who specialize in kidney diseases like nephrolithiasis, necrotic syndrome, glomerulonephritis and urinary tract infection, among others. They should have undergone special training in the management of kidney conditions. 

They could also recommend dialysis and laboratory tests, if needed. Tests that are often requested are routine urinalysis, creatinine clearance and renal blood flow tests, namely, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine tests.


These are doctors who have specialized in conditions of the nervous system, including the brain. Neural conditions such as Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, seizures and other neurological diseases are treated and managed by neurologists. 

They have undergone two to five years of training, depending on the licensing body. 

These are more specializations of doctors that you should be aware of. Next time you go to a doctor, decide what type of doctor you need first to avoid wasting your time and money.

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Miss Universe 2017 Winner Prediction

The Miss Universe 2017 winner prediction is based on the author's personal observations. Hence, this does not reflect that of the Miss Universe organization.

This year the pageant is held in the Philippines, where the reigning Miss Universe 2016, Pia Wurtzbach resides.

The preliminary competition was hosted by Pia and actor Derek Ramsay.

The preliminary competition included the swim suit and evening gown competition. The predicted winners for this the Miss Universe 2017 beauty pageant are the following: (In no particular order).

Image credit: Maxine Medina

Top 12 Miss Universe Candidates are:

1. Ukraine
2. Venezuela
3. Philippines
4. Thailand
5. Vietnam
6. Puerto Rico
7. France
8. Spain
9. Barbados
10. Kazakhstan
11. Turkey
12. Peru

And the Top 5 Miss Universe 2017 candidates are:

1. Thailand
2. Philippines
3. Ukraine
4. Venezuela
5. France

The coronation night will be be held on January 30, 2017 and let's see how many of these predicted candidates will make it,or win the title of Miss Universe 2017.

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Manny Pacquiao Tops HBO’s List for Top 20 Best Boxers in 2017

Manny Pacquiao has topped the list of HBO’s Top 20 Best Boxers, pound for pound this 2017. The legendary boxer from the Philippines earned 8 world titles and an impressive boxing record, 59-6-2, 38 KOs.

Sen. Manny Pacquiao

Pacquiao, who is now a duly elected senator in the Philippines, just recently defeated Jessie Vargas, the WBO Welterweight champion, on November 5, 2016. He won the WBO Welterweight boxing title for the 3rd time.

Now, 38, the senator is busy with his duties to his country. He has been lauded for his significant participation in the senate hearings of controversial national issues. Reportedly, he is still not retiring from boxing.

Being ranked 1 among the Best Fighters in the world is an amazing feat that no Filipino or Asian boxer of this generation was able to achieve.

Watch the video below of Manny Pacquiao and HBO’s Top 20 Best Boxers in 2017. The video is courtesy of HBO.